CU AJUTORUL CHESTIONARULUI AP
EVALUATION OF PERSONAL AUTONOMY
WITH AP QUESTIONNAIRE
The AP questionnaire measures four dimensions of personal autonomy: cognitive autonomy, behavioral autonomy, emotional autonomy and value autonomy.
The questionnaire was made by Monica Albu together with a group of psychology master candidates at the “Babes-Bolyai” University, in 2006.
On a sample made of 940 persons, with ages between 14 and 25 years, a rising tendency of the points of all scales and the whole questionnaire as the ageing process occurs. The rise is more accentuated in the 14 to 16-age interval and more reduced between 17 and 25 years.
Three age groups have been identified and within them, neither for the girls nor for the boys the grades of the scores of the AP questionnaire do not differ at the p = 0,05 threshold between the ages: 14 to 15 years, 16 to 19 years and 20 to 25 years. For both sexes, the average grades of the scores of the scales and the average grade of the whole questionnaire have the smallest values at the first group (14 to 15 years) and the highest values at the third group (20 to 25 years).
DOTARE SUPERIOARĂ, TALENT ŞI CREATIVITATE (STC): MODALITĂŢI DE DEFINIRE ŞI RELAŢIONĂRI STRUCTURALE
GIFTEDNESS, TALENT AND CREATIVITY(GTC): DEFINITION MODALITIES AND STRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIPS
The issue concerning the triad: superior giftedness, talent and creativity (GTC) continues to be in the specialists’ focus, both from a theoretical perspective and from an applicative one. From the numerous definitions, theories and models that were formulated for this phenomena, in the paper were taken in into account only those ones proposed by L.M. Terman, F. Gagné, H. Gardner, J.S. Renzulli, D.K. Simonton, Al. Roşca etc.
An evaluative approach was adopted, intending to bring several conceptual explanations, inclusively for the present theoretical trends. Correlating the available information with the results of the personal research, we discuss the definition modalities and structural relationships among the components of the triad GTC.
In our opinion, the triad giftedness – talent – creativity can be thought of as a figure with “n” dimensions, as a mental image representative for 4% of the schooling population of a country, who represent the positive exceptionality. The sides of the figure may be uneven in size, shape, color etc., but they share a dynamic, evolutionary character and a unitary undividable structure. One or other of the sides can appear in respect of the innate endowment, educational offer or social need. Even more often, combinations of these can come forth and then we are inclined to characterize the person “in the picture” as being gifted, talented or creative. Taking into consideration the degree of generality and the level of abstraction of the three components GTC, we may estimate that these occupy equivalent positions in the pyramid of concepts that the relation between them is not either of subordination or of superordination but mainly one of coordination. In other words, the relationships between giftedness, talent and creativity are not exclusive, but of partial overlap and reciprocal influence.
The emergence and ascending of GTC triad depends on the presence and interaction of three categories of factors or conditionings: biological, psychological and social. Giftedness is mainly interested in those biological characteristics that structure and define the type of nervous system (mainly the central one), the endocrine glands and the sensory system. The type of nervous system is particularly important because of its qualities of power, mobility and balance, the hormonal system by determining a person’s masculinity and femininity, and the sensory system, because of the qualities of the visual, auditory and equilibrium senses.
“The psychological heredity”, a not very known phenomenon yet, represents the transmission towards descendants of some feelings, unattained hopes, fears etc. What is transmitted is the contents of the subconscious and the way to achieve it is unconscious.
“The social heredity” designates the totality of the direct or indirect, constant or occasional influences, exercised upon the child by the factors of the environment where he is born and lives in: family, neighborhood, group of friends, mass-media etc. Through their qualities, their way of manifestation and action, those factors can sustain or, on the contrary, they can obstruct the normal evolution of a child’s personality formation process.
The data and ideas presented here could serve as a basis for the elaboration and implementation of psycho-pedagogical assistance programs for the gifted children.
Stil de muncă şi climat organizaţional
Work Style and Organizational CLIMATE
The continually changing and adapting organizational context represents a dynamic and challenging environment for the individual’s personal and professional development. Regarding this, the work style is a constellation of heterogeneous factors of motivational, emotional, cognitive, attitudinal and psycho-social factors which, by their combination, determine his unique way of approaching his work and using his resources in order to achieve personal and professional goals, both individual and organizational ones. As a complex structure involved in self-management processes, the work style is permanently developing in interaction with all the elements of the organizational environment in which the individual works.
The study explores the shaping influences of the perceived organizational climate on the individuals’ work style. The research has been conducted on a group of 58 subjects, aged 22 to 54 and it has used as data mining methods the following instruments: SM II Questionnaire, developed by Niculiţă, Z. for work style evaluation and CO IV Questionnaire, elaborated by Constantin, T. for organizational climate evaluation.
The research results present a new perspective on the shaping valences of the organizational climate over the individuals’ work style. They also open the way to other studies suggesting specific creative methods of intervention on the organizational climate in order to create the premises for an efficient and harmonious work style development.
Year after year, the IT technology is pervading more and more every aspect of our lives, confronting us with the challenges and the opportunities offered by an information society. It has changed, also, the environment in which children, adolescents and young people develop. Yet, its impact on their development is not very clearly understood, being extremely little investigated. The present paper is aimed to bring a contribution in that direction. In its first part, the aspects of the present information society that may have significance in changing the way cognitive system develops are identified. In its second part, there are analyzed some possible research strategies that could be designed in order to get empirical support for their relevance in the discussed matter.
Until now, several factors have been proposed in the cognitive psychology literature to account for the difficulty of syllogisms. The most important of them is the one mentioned in the mental model theory for the syllogistic reasoning (Johnson-Laird and Byrne, 1991): the number of models needed to be constructed in order to solve a syllogistic task. In the paper those factors are discussed, putting into question their explicative value and proposing some alternative accounts. Apart from other theoretical and empirical considerations, the analysis is based on some personal data obtained in a research carried out on 31 high school students solving a task of 24 syllogisms.
Social life takes in adolescence new dimensions, broadly characterized by building social groups with complex structure, norms and values, and by construing and adopting a group identity. These processes are strongly connected to the new acquired abilities of adolescents (e.g. increased abilities to process and use social information), which influence the continuous process of cognitive and emotional development. The present paper highlights the main developments that take place at the neurobiological and social information processing level, during adolescence.
Le Projet de la lecture et de l’écriture pour le développement de la pensée critique promouvant des techniques d’enseignement destinées à aider les élèves à apprendre activement, à penser d’une façon critique et à travailler en coopérant avec leurs collègues. Le Projet se matérialise sous la forme d’une série d’ateliers avec la participation des professeurs de tous les niveaux de l’enseignement (primaire, secondaire, lycéal et universitaire). Les méthodes présentées à ces ateliers vont être utilisées dans l’enseignement plus efficient des objets de la programme d’enseignement, elles n’ont besoin d’aucun paquet de matériaux.
Le programme des projets comprend une série de cours courts, chacun étant accompagné par un manuel qui contient des renseignements détaillés concernant les matériaux présentés au cours:
· un cadre d’étude active et de pensée critique;
· méthodes de promotion de la pensée critique;
· lecture / écriture / entretiens à chaque objet;
· d’autres stratégies de promotion de la pensée critique;
· étude par coopération;
· la planification des leçons et l’évaluation;
· l’atelier des lecteurs: la formation des lecteurs;
· atelier d’écriture: de l’auto-expression aux arguments écrits etc.
On utilise le modèle de „l’instruction des éducateurs”, au cours duquel les professeurs apprennent de nouvelles méthodes, et ensuite ils enseignent des cours pareils dans les ateliers destinés aux autres professeurs qui vont être préparés pour employer ces méthodes. De cette façon, l’instruction est assuré par des éducateurs qui présentent de la crédibilité parce qu’eux-mêmes emploient avec compétence ces méthodes d’enseignement.
Scopul principal al lucrării noastre de cercetare rezidă din interesul manifestat faţă de implicaţiile pe care factorii de personalitate şi interesele vocaţionale îl au în contextul organizaţional românesc. Astfel, bucurându-ne de noile instrumente de evaluare a personalităţii şi intereselor vocaţionale (Miclea et al, 2006), ne propunem să aducem nişte date pertinente în cadrul literaturii de specialitate privind corelaţia dintre cele două variabile (Sava, 2004, p. 51).
Cercetarea noastră îşi propune să evidenţieze modul cum unul din factorii de persoanlitate ai modelul lui Costa şi McCrae (Costa, McCrae, 2006, 2005, 1998; McCrae, 2004), respectiv conştiinciozitatea, se relaţionează cu interesele vocaţionale propuse de Holland, respectiv interesele realistice, investigative, artistice, sociale, antreprenoriale şi convenţionale (Holland, Rayman, 1986, p. 55-82).
Importanţa pe care o au interesele vocaţionale şi personalitatea în mediul organizaţional nu poate fi contestată deoarece productivitatea sau satisfacţia profesională a unui angajat derivă din prestarea unei munci care să se încadreze în sfera vocaţională personală a acestuia (Savickas, 2004, p. 656), iar structura personalităţii poate facilita sau altera această performanţă.
Leadership consists of fulfilling some functions specific for management, being subordinated to accomplishing some economic and social precise objectives, which makes the difference between managers and execution personnel. In order to accomplish their managerial activity in an adequate way, managers have to possess adequate knowledge, attitudes and aptitudes specific to leadership. Although many specialists consider the manager profession as a profession for the elder ones, the practice reality shows the decrease of the age when this function is attributed and is assumed by young people that have recently graduated a faculty, that practice their manager role simultaneously with post-universitary formation studies and advanced post-universitary studies in management. The purpose of our research is to identify the motivational dominants and the roles that the young managers assume in the teams they lead. Our objectives are the following: to identify the roles that the young managers prefer within the teams they lead to success, to find out what motivates them and the professional satisfactions they have, to find out what tendency is dominant in the investigated managers’ personality. In order to accomplish these objectives, we have worked with: Chestionarul de autocunoastere Belbin (Belbin self-knowledge questionnaire), Chestionarul “Tendinte tipologice” (“Typological tendencies” questionnaire), Chestionarul “Dominante motivationale” (“Motivational dominants” questionnaire). We consider that the results of our research will prove to be useful both to managers and to everyone who is concerned with understanding leadership from a psychological point of view, too.
The fast development in the field of vocational counseling and its use on a larger scale in the last years constitutes a realistic response to the perpetual changes in various fields: social, economic, educational etc. In this fast changing world, the need for career and vocational counseling is becoming obvious, the main purpose being that of developing career decision making skills in students.
The implementation of such programs is necessary even during secondary school, as, in the Romanian educational system, students have to choose a type of school and profile at the end of the eight grade.
Planning a structure for a vocational counseling program raised the necessity for constructing an age-appropriate questionnaire for eight graders, with the purpose of identifying interest and connecting them to specific school and career choices.
We chose to construct the questionnaire based on J. Holland’s theory of the six personality types, connected with specific activities and career fields.
The questionnaire has 90 items, 15 for each of the six personality types (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional). The content of the items is based on the descriptions of the specific preferences / interests for each of the personality types.
The questionnaire was given to a number of 312 eight
grade students from
In order to verify the fidelity of the questionnaire, an item analysis was performed, calculating the Alpha Cronbach coefficient for every scale of the test.
Previous research has identified some of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (as smoking, stress, depression, social isolation, low fruit and vegetable intake, etc.). Since the probability of developing cardiovascular diseases among women grows with age, research in targeting the identification of such risk factors and the development of primary and secondary intervention of CVD has intensified in the last few years. Our research has a triple purpose: after reviewing the most relevant literature regarding the risk factors of CVD among women at menopause, we will introduce the importance of assessing different aspects of the patients’ lives, and recommend specific models through which risk behaviors may be changed in a way that might enhance the patients’ quality of life. Consequently, our study is divided in three major parts. First of all we will discuss about the effects of smoking, alcohol abuse, sedentary life-style, nutrition, obesity, negative affect on our target population. Secondly, we will review the relevant literature through which psycho-social and behavioral risk factors of CVD might be changed (as Theory of Planned Behavior, Health Belief Model, Cognitive Therapy, Stages and processes of self-change, etc.). The study will implement the thus extracted knowledge in the discussion conceiving specific types of counseling for enhancing aspects that might promote behavioral change in order to reduce the number and effect of risk factors.
Key-words: cardio-vascular diseases, risk factors, treatment adherence, quality of life.
of the classes in the mass schools of
This research focuses on the following factors that influence the school adjustment abilities of borderline intellect children:
· children’s cognitive characteristics;
· metacognitive strategies used in learning;
· the characteristics of the families these children come from.
Le phénomène de la délinquance juvénile - présent, en proportions différentes, à toutes les époques historiques et dans toutes les cultures - relève de l’inadaptation sociale et des troubles de comportement et de personnalité. Comme forme distincte de la déviance, la délinquance juvénile représente un phénomène complexe, qui comprend l’ensemble des comportements qui entrent en conflit avec les valeurs protégées par la norme pénale.
Ces dernières années, il est apparu toute une série de changements dans la structure et dans la dynamique du phénomène de la délinquance juvénile de notre pays. Ces changements concernent autant l’aspect quantitatif que l’aspect qualitatif : l’augmentation du nombre d’adolescents impliqués dans des actes antisociaux ; la prolifération de la consommation de drogues ; la tendance au regroupement par bandes dirigées, dans la plupart des cas, par un infracteur adulte ; le passage rapide d’infractions à impact social plus réduit à celles extrêmement dangereuses et à répercussions majeures, etc.
Les résultats obtenus à la suite des recherches expérimentales effectuées mettent en évidence une maturation sociale insuffisante chez les délinquants mineurs, qui découle d’une intégration sociale défectueuse, mais en même temps constitue une conséquence de leur immaturité caractérologique, respectivement des troubles de la sphère motivationnelle, affective, volitive et attitudinale de leur personnalité.
L’immaturité caractérologique se manifeste par un autocontrôle insuffisant, une responsabilité réduite, de l’impulsivité et de l’agressivité, de l’indifférence ou de l’ambivalence affective, l’opposition à et le rejet des normes juridiques et morales, une «flexibilité» accentuée qui se manifeste par un comportement fluctuant et de l’inconstance dans les réactions aux stimuli, des tendances égocentriques, l’exacerbation de certains besoins ou motifs, l’absence ou l’insuffisant développement des sentiments éthico-moraux.
One of the main issues in the posttraumatic growth literature is the validity and stability of reports of positive changes and growth experienced in the aftermath of an extremely intense negative event. People may have the tendency to report high levels of un-experienced growth either to conform to social desirability, or to reassure themselves and create illusory comfort, that in the long-run might prove to be maladaptive. One of the methods identified by the posttraumatic growth literature is that of the Downward Temporal Comparison. Namely, in order to perceive positive changes, people are able to mitigate past characteristics, thus perceiving greater improvement in the present.
The main objective of our study was to verify the genuineness of posttraumatic growth reported by Romanian cancer patients through the method of Downward Temporal Comparison.
In our study we have the genuineness of perceived growth by both cancer patients (N = 26) and health controls (N = 30). All participants were assessed on the level of experienced stress related growth, and on the Personal Attribute Rating Scale, as they perceived themselves at the moment of assessment and as they perceive they were 2 years before the assessment.
According to the results obtained through the method of Downward Temporal Comparison, the growth reported by cancer patients seems to be genuine. Nevertheless, the control group tends to perceive itself in a much worse light on their personal attributes than did the traumatized group.
Effects of Expressive Writing on
the affective state of
The diagnosis with cancer has a huge impact on patients, eliciting powerful negative reactions, as intense anxiety, depression, hopelessness. Increasingly larger amounts of research suggest that expressing feelings about the diagnosis and its consequences positively influences adjustment to illness, reduces negative affectivity and has a positive effect on the quality of life as well. Written emotional expression integrates cognitive and emotional processes and helps patients express their emotions and thoughts into a linguistic structure that promotes self-reflection and understanding of the event and reduces the psychological distress.
Our study has followed the original, basic Expressive Writing (EW) paradigm, assessing 40 Romanian patients, hospitalized with different forms of cancer.
Consequently, we have assumed that following the Expressive Writing task, the levels of psychological distress and negative affect of the patients would decrease, and the level of positive affect would increase. We also investigated other aspects (education, time elapsed since diagnosis) associated with benefits due to EW. The forty cancer patients receiving radiotherapy were asked to write four days, for twenty minutes, about their deepest thoughts and feelings regarding their cancer diagnostic and treatment. We assessed the level of depression, negative affect, positive affect, and coping mechanisms before the intervention and a month after the last writing session. Our results have shown that the participants benefit from EW task by reducing their psychological distress.
This study presents the case of 24 years young woman. Maria attends therapy because she wants to change her life style now, that she is graduating from the faculty and she will return home. The patient considers that the first occurrence of her problems was in her adolescence when she displayed behavioral disorders. In her first childhood she was sexual abused.
The DSM IV-TR criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder are satisfied. Psychiatric diagnosis: Sever depressive episode. Borderline Personality Disorder. Medical treatment (Cipralex and Stilnox) were accompanied with Rational Emotive Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (maieutics, dialectics, progressive relaxation, hypnotherapy).
We met difficulties like lack of environment control and lack of an authentic values scale. After three months from the beginning of intervention, the acquired results are stable in time.
Personality disorders are some of the most controversial and problematic disorders from DSM, considering that they have big prevalence and they are approached in an inefficient manner.
This study presents the case of an 18 years old teenager who attends psychotherapy because he is disturbed by his respiratory chronic ticks. The subject’s general state is affected too by an acute chronic gastroduodenitis. The subject presents also schizoid personality disorder: he has no friends, neither the specific preoccupation of the boys of his age. After a psychiatric assessment, recommendations are: counseling and monthly psychiatric checking.
During the 11 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy, specific CBT methods and not only were applied. After the therapy, the patient’s progress was obvious: the target problems were ameliorated (cough reduction, psychosomatic disorders amelioration and social relationship improvement).
A theoretical framework for the development of children’s social behavior is provided by the integrated model of emotion processes and cognition in social information processing. Based on this approach, we developed an intervention program, which was designed to develop emotional and social competencies in 5-year-old preschool children (N=52). In order to assess the effectiveness of the program, we used a quasi-experimental design with multiple measurement tools (observation, questionnaire, experimental procedure) and multiple observers (experimenter, teacher, parent). The intervention yielded significant differences between the experimental and control group on almost all measures in the expected direction. The only measures that did not show a significant effect on the intervention were the social competence questionnaire completed by the parents. Besides statistic significance, the size effects were in the medium and large range, providing further practical relevance for the intervention. In sum, the intervention proved its short-term effectiveness. However, more data on medium and long-term effects are needed in order to draw conclusions. Also, we suggest a higher involvement of parents in such programs in order to ensure the generalization of acquired social behaviors.
“Emotional intelligence” has been found to be essential for adaptation in adult life. This type of intelligence roots in the development of emotional and social competence especially during the preschool years. These competencies are protective factors against the development of psychopathology in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as key factors for ensuring school readiness and later academic success. Because of their involvement in maintaining mental health and successful intrapersonal and interpersonal adaptation, they are thought to represent important sources for the development of early education programs. Although extensive fundamental research on the topic has proven the benefits of developing emotional and social competencies, only a few validated prevention programs have been yet conceived. Consequently, our aim was to conceive a program targeting the development of emotional and social competencies in preschool children without psychopathology. We have established key developmental milestones for these competencies for two age groups (3-4 year-olds and 5-7 year-olds) and designed activities for their development, which can be used by both parents and teachers. We also found that many childhood problems may be caused by inappropriate childrearing practices. In order to address interpersonal risk factors we suggest the use of a teacher and parent training program for the development of (i) adult interpersonal abilities (stress management, communication, problem-solving and decision making); and (ii) parent-child and teacher-child relationship. Based on previous research, we believe that a three level intervention (child, parent, and teacher) is best suited for the success of such a preventive intervention.
This article presents the important sources of occupational stress for managers. The occupational stresses are negative effects for the company, but also for the managers, in special for the mental and physical health and our job satisfaction. The study was made on 130 managers of middle level managers from Azomures SA: shift managers, team managers – chemist foremen, electro-mechanics, electricians, mechanics and thermo-technicians. The research tool used is: the organizational stress indicator OSI-90, the 2nd edition issued by Cooper, Sloan & Williams, 1996, adapted and translated by Pitariu (1998). The most important stress sources face relate to interpersonal relationships in the workplace, responsibility towards others and personal acknowledgement within one’s department. Most of the time stress sources act together (fact demonstrated by the correlations among them, all being significant at a significance level of 0.01), influence each other and have negative effects both on managers and the company. The effects of work-related stress on managers can also influence their work satisfaction as well as their health. An important role in ensuring organizational success resides in diagnosing occupational stress and reducing stress sources.
This sociological research claims to contribute to the
accomplishment of some managerial strategies that want to ameliorate the quality
of the educational act of the
The activities consisted in the data collection using the method of the sociological survey with questionnaires. The sociological surveys are used to collect information about items in a population. Surveys of human populations and institutions are common in political polling, health, social science and marketing research.
Our questionnaire contains questions about the educational, motivational and social profile of the persons that intended to become students at our university, looking for aspects like nationality, religion, gender, age, department of origin, etc.
Any scientific research, irrespective of the field, is performed as a theoretical reconstruction based on concrete data that are supplied by experimental research, where the sociologist and, implicitly, sociology should realize theoretical constructions that can be articulated with the results of social research. Thus, our effort of structuring and constituting a possible paradigm of approach becomes visible. A problem of principle, nevertheless, appears, i.e. that according to which any scientific research promotes a paradigm which is finally shaped into a geometry of the social reality.
According to these considerations, society can be studied as a whole, globally, both intensively and extensively, wherever social facts cannot be isolated, only studied in an organic interdependence with the entire social universe.
A humanistic approach of the phenomenon of social change and of the technologic impact on it, presupposes a clear cut delineation of the individual’s role in society by a thorough canvassing of the individuals’ interrelations. An individual cannot be represented as isolated, but as creating and entering a system of relations that are determined by certain productive forces that generate a structure that is proper for each social system on each stage of its social development. Perception and analysis of each individual according to such coordinates is helpful to our analysis in that change perception should start from the individual towards society, since it is the individual that cumulates all prerogatives through which social development is galvanized. Our conclusions are based on a study performed from the perspective of an interdisciplinary approach of the social.
Selon Anthony Giddens, nous vivons une période de radicalisation de la modernité (RM désormais), qu'il s'agit de bien distinguer de ce qu'on analyse, volontiers, comme postmodernité (PM1) et, ensuite, que la période de la postmodernité (PM2) est encore à venir. Giddens cherche à caractériser l'ensemble des institutions de la modernité au travers d'un modèle tétradimensionnel qui lie: ordre économique (I), ordre technologique (II), ordre militaire (III) et ordre politique (IV) 12. Un ordre RM, c'est un ordre où les mouvements sociaux sont: des mouvements ouvriers (I), des mouvements écologistes (II), des mouvements pacifistes (III) et des mouvements de libre parole (IV) ; ce qui constitue, notons-le au passage, une vision peu conformiste des mouvements sociaux, traditionnellement considérés, à une époque donnée, comme récessifs ou dominants et non comme coextensifs d'une même trame. Un ordre postmoderne (au sens de PM2), serait donc, de ce point de vue : un système économique de post-pénurie 13 (I), un système d'humanisation de la technologie (II), une situation démilitarisée (III) et une participation démocratique à plusieurs niveaux (IV). Mais, pour autant, cette évolution vers PM2 n'a rien de nécessaire ou d'automatique: des risques majeurs pèsent sur la modernité, elle qui a précisément installé le risque comme l'un de ses ressorts essentiels. Ces risques, ce sont: l'effondrement des mécanismes de la croissance économique (I), les dégâts ou catastrophes écologiques (II), un conflit nucléaire ou des guerres de grande ampleur (III), le développement du totalitarisme (IV).
Our paper is based on the publications issued by the Sociological School of Bucharest on the topic of social relations between the social actors in a rural area. According to the above mentioned school, we can speak about relations of mutual assistance attested in different circumstances: weddings, funerals etc. We studied those kinds of relations in the periurban area of Floreşti and we have arrived to some conclusion that our paper will offer.
The social relations we talk about suffered important changes that finally brought about their dissolution. The variations to which the entire community was subject to can be described as follows: an accelerate movement towards urban life, working abroad and a new vision of property management.
Our paper will focus on the peculiarities of urban development we discovered in the periurban area of Floreşti, an area where the social actors prove their preference to urban expansion rather than to conserving their own identities.
The sustainable development, with its three components (ecological, economical and social -equal in weight), represents the central goal of the development strategies of the Romanian rural environment. But, in reality, in many of the community and intercommunity strategies that have been developed up to now, the focus is on the ecological and economical components, the social one being often approached only subsidiarily. The main preoccupation of the local authorities is the attraction of budgetary or European funds by means of some projects that are mainly focused on the development of local infrastructure. Such an approach on development, although it has sure benefits on short and medium term, does not contribute to mobilizing the local human and material potential, stimulating even more the passivity of the rural population.
Ultimul deceniu şi jumătate a reprezentat pentru societatea românească o perioadă de profunde schimbări. Printre acestea, reconfi-gurarea claselor sociale şi emergenţa de noi factori ai poziţionării sociale.
Cum se auto-poziţionează indivizii în ierarhia socială în contextul socio-economic contemporan? Care este reperul principal al percepţiei propriei poziţii? Diferă, în vreun fel, criteriile de autopoziţionare socială din România de cele existenta în societăţile Occidentale? Are mediul şcolar vreo influenţă asupra poziţionării sociale a elevilor şi asupra aspiraţiilor lor?
Articolul nostru va încerca să ofere răspunsuri unor asemenea întrebări referitoare la liceenii din anul terminal, grup social cu omogenitate crescută. Concluziile se vor baza pe rezultatele unei cercetări proprii -Barometrul valorilor şi al relaţiilor sociale ale elevilor de liceu - realizată pe eşantioane reprezentative în municipiile Iaşi şi Bacău.
Alături de alte aspecte, cercetarea vizează identificarea elementelor care influenţează semnificativ autopoziţionarea elevilor în ierarhia socială precum şi mecanismele prin care familia le facilitează ascensiunea socială.
Abordarea empirică va fi completată de cea normativă, încercându-se reliefarea punctelor de convergenţă, respectiv de divergenţă dintre poziţionarea “obiectivă” şi percepţia “subiectivă”.
The paper discusses the sociological concept of human community as it is reflected in proverbs. The general characteristics of human communities as well as the specific ones are taken into consideration. Proverbs that refer to basic forms of human communities such as family life, friendship, vicinity, specific aspects of rural or urban communities, social and interpersonal relations based on the customs and moral rules of a particular social unit are analyzed in this context. Another category of proverbs presented here are those that reflect social differences as well as characteristics of some social groups and categories.
Sferă publică, democraţie şi artă
En partant des circonstances de la récente mise en œuvre, dans la capitale du pays, d’un complexe et non moins ambitieux projet artistico-politique (Spaţiul public Bucureşti | Public Art Bucharest 2007, 15 septembre – 15 octobre 2007), ma communication veut explorer quelques raisons de principe pour lesquelles les questions d’une sphère publique démocratique sont susceptibles d’être traitées en tant qu’objets privilégiés des stratégies caractéristiques pour les pratiques artistiques contemporaines. Quelle est la signification de l’approche de la sphère et de l’espace publics en tant que tels comme thème et référent d’une intervention artistique, et cela par contraste avec leur réalité de facto, ainsi comme elle est, d’une part, forgée par d’autres champs de production symbolique et discursive et d’autre part exploitée (rentabilisée) en bénéfice des différents intérêts privés et/ou particuliers ? Il s’agit également d’évaluer aussi les limites, non pas tant de la capacité d’intervention de l’art dans l’espace public, mais de la pertinence démocratique des approches dépolitisées – soit dans le sens d’une esthétisation, soit dans un sens purement gestionnaire – de l’idée régulatrice « d’intérêt public ». Outre les opportunités historiques particulières (dans tous les sens, ouvertures, urgences, mais aussi les dangers) apportées par les réalités socio-économiques et politiques pour les rapports structurels entre la démocratie et la sphère publique, respectivement pour les médiations entre celles-ci à travers l’art, l’enjeu se place aussi au niveau des impulsions que la théorie critique peut recevoir d’une réflexivité proprement artistique lorsque la dernière se conçoit d’une manière explicite comme porteuse de significations sociales.
After a long period of social homogenization, persuaded by the former communist regime, the post-communism era made room for social differentiation. Each region, village, city, neighborhood, corner of the street, and not in the last instance each individual, wanted to be perceived as different and to impose her/his specificity, particularity – i.e. the quintessence of the localization processes. In the years immediately after ’89, this euphoria was completely justified in a context considered spaced out from the rest of the world.
As soon as globalization has reached
Is this new culture of consumption defining nowadays Transylvanian realities? Has it (or not) something like responsible consumption embedded in? Has this ongoing process of differentiation structural roots? These are some of the issues that will be addressed within my presentation.
Tacking of this subject, we propose the thesis that the value appears to us like value in self, transcendental, and value for somebody aiming its regards to exist. Although they are distinct, those two levels of value are deeply interconnected.
From this point of view, value is an object of knowledge and this knowledge became unavailable if we intend to integrate the value in our soul and from here, from this inner to set up it into purpose or ideal for our spirit and our life. What we call the knowledge of value engages, first time, an affective process in which the feeling, in its complexity, is involved particularly without remain in empiricism. So, noticed Plato, the first step in knowledge is sensibility which follows the reflection. The feeling is source of the truth but it didn't found it.
This paper enlarges upon idea that the value is object of knowledge, but different of any other objects of nature. In contrast with the knowledge of objects of nature, which are axiologically indifferent, the knowledge of value involves an emotional constituent and a rational one. Advancing the judgment of value, the feeling of value is essential for its detection and for the conversion of the being of value into the reality of life and culture. This part of the feeling of value does not put in danger the unity and eternity of value and this is very important for the knowledge and the intercultural communication in the world.
The present article has at its basis the analysis of the process of manipulation through traditions that is recently applied by the political regime from Chişinau. It reveals that traditions have become a relevant formulae within manipulation because in such a way it remains unobservable. The main goal of manipulation is to prevent and to stop the changes and to keep the continuity of the sovietic generations. From another point of view, manipulation can reach success for a short period of time, because the young generation manifests its readiness to do the required changes and to defend the democratic values.
The long history of restrained attitudes regarding human imagination is a main feature of Western thinking. Therefore, the very late acceptance in this cultural area of the idea that imagination plays a prominent and positive part in human knowledge is no surprise. The analysis of some important historical moments in the evolution of this idea can reveal a new perspective on the function of image in the new informational Western society.
The study tries to emphasize the implicit thematic relation between the reforming project of the contemporary phenomenology, as it appears illustrated by Merlea-Ponty in Le visible et l’invisible, and the philosophical and theological tradition of the apophatism.
On this context, the author demonstrates that the analogy that Merleau-Ponty does between his new phenomenology and the “negative theology” does not aim so much at the occidental metamorphosis of the classical Neo-Platonism – especially in their aeropagitica version – but more at some kind of manifested “apophatism of the apophatism” that, for Merleau-Ponty, defines a new “esthesiology”- that of the limited void. This indirect cataphatism of the surpassing and the conservation of the affirmation and of the negation proper to any logical discourse – whose centre always remains in the created subject – on favor of the kind of “Logos”, expression of paradoxically synthesis between the created and the uncreated.
with a critique of the mechanisms of distorting the individual or collective
process of reflection, the
Doina David, Călin Florea
The current title should not be analyzed in its strictest form, as the current paper is intended as a “niche” in the extremely vast plane of the creational phenomenon, a timid way of opening new horizons in analyzing a complex, controversial, synchronic and diachronic process – culture.
Our attempt is full of risks since we can hardly claim to analyze and include all essential aspects that should totally satisfy the reader.
As a sign of identity, culture remains a vividly disputed issue now that an integrating strategy of cultures is more and more conspicuously being delineated. Contrary to such integrating tendencies, cultural identities have to become elements that surpass stereotypes and standard structures, asserting the multiplicity of the cultural phenomenon wherever the plurality of forms and cultures does not infringe on universality.
Admitting cultural diversity as a phenomenon as well as a process implies value, which represents an essential condition of historical survival. Cultural entities in the totality of their inner diversity demonstrate that the universal, as a key concept of the contemporary world, cannot be understood outside cultures as identity structures.
Macro-history also implies “local history”, the universal at cultural level implies the particular not as simple mathematical sum but first and foremost as value and historical engagement. Current cultural unity can only exist through its structural and value diversity.
MIRCEA ELIADE – MARTIN HEIDEGGER
For Mircea Eliade’s disciples any travel in
Values and non-values within the
The human being is the one who, in its desire of achieving perfection, through the man – report of perfection (report in extension regarding the conceptualization of time and space in an equally perfect balance in its being and in the structuralization of the transcendental in the plan of the intelligible ) - represented by the identity of a single being, the improvement of the civilized man, in the character of the philosopher; he tends to create systems, fragments of spaces and worlds, in a time beyond the tangible, in the corporality of the transcendent.
If in the “Trilogy of Culture” the action is based on the Transcendent, it is worked by the Transcendent and it is fulfilled in the plan of the Transcendent, through the stylistic mark of the man, which confers diversity to the cultural manifestations of the Transcendent, by human implications of different shades, valences, values, in the “Trilogy of Knowledge”, the stylistic mark becomes a matrix symbol, it becomes the completeness of the human action manifested in a liberal way towards a return to the Transcendent. If the Transcendent manifests through discovery, the human being relates to the Transcendent by knowledge.
Persons with Down syndrome are integrated in the category of persons with handicap. Like other persons with disability, they have to beneficiate of various rights, they have to be included in the action of social protection.
The social integration of the youth with Down syndrome
represents an important point in actual context in EU and, of course, in
· elimination of physical or psychological obstacles;
· encouraging of access to education and professional formation;
· integration support on jobs market;
· stimulation and facilitation of participation.
Psycho-pedagogical study has been realized on a youth sample with Down syndrome between 19-36 years old, from Iedera’s Day Centre Oradea, in May – June 2007, the selection being made based on few items: fundamental acquisitions level, sociability degree with strangers or known persons.
Education is one of the oldest preoccupation of humanity, the proof, in this sense, is the impressive number of perspectives with which it was tackled: psychological, pedagogical, sociological, medical, philosophical, and so on. Therefore, an extremely large number of definitions for education resulted, tackling the formation of a man efficiently living for tomorrow's challenges. But education is a component of social life. Therefore, as integrant part of this, education has a well determined structure, being constituted of various interdependent components. So, it results a new representative note of education: his structural character. In this paper, we intend to offer a personal vision about the structure of the educational act, making correlations among the elements of the speciality literature through a personal and original conception.
FEATURES OF EDUCATIONAL O
Culture became important as a modality for describing and understanding the social and emotional problems. It can be seen as a conceptualization alternative for organizations or as a holistic approach for their understanding (Bush, 2002). It is also responsible for the formation of the context in which educational management and classroom management could be exerted, having a greater influence on the way in which educational managers think and act. Educational organization represents a socially determined reality, with its own social structure of relations between its components and its own functionality of the correlations between participant members, engaged in specific educational activities (Cristea, 2002).
This paper aims to identify and characterize some of the reference points with validity in concrete educational organizations, with the target of helping teachers in order to find the best modalities of changing or maintaining the cultural elements that could determine the educational progress.
Immediately after the late nineteenth century industrial revolution, the first difficulty in applying the new world’s percepts appeared: who produces and who controls quality, what information and what parameters should characterize these functions, regardless of the type, size or character of the organization in cause.
The person who proposed the solution – the only one
possible, yet still raising problems at the time – was the researcher Taylor
who underlined the fact that, in that phase of evolution, the two activities –
obtaining the quality and measuring it – must be carried into effect by two
different functions, due to the fact that the producer of quality, as an
intrinsic part of the labor result, cannot be objective when regarding the
control of this result, especially when it comes to the medium and small
organizations, family firms, where the leadership is controlled by the owner of
the organization, the head of the family, and often the employee (worker) is
one of the descendents. That is why,
It can be affirmed that professionalism, in any domain, is the only guarantee for society’s progress. Whereas professionalism stands for nothing else but quality, therefore we are dealing with a certain paradox: obtaining quality is the result of professionalism, which, in its turn, is actually the quality of resources itself, especially human resources.
To underline the importance of education in fulfilling the number of functions, either they refer to the quality domain or to other domains, the international standards ISO – 9001: 2000 [*] mention as a basic request in assuring the human resources quality, defining the professional characteristics and the inborn characteristics necessary for each function, which influences directly or indirectly the quality of the product, process or management. Only after defining these concepts and verifying the existence of certain differences which already exist in the organization in cause, the preparation for a new educational and internal instruction program can begin, according to the necessities.
The use of these terms in the industrial, economical, social organisms is possible only if another concept is implemented, through systematic and ongoing education, namely creating producer – beneficiary relations in the supposed organism: every process (technological, managerial, economic etc.) is, at the same time, both the producer for the next phase and the beneficiary for the previous phase. In this chain, the basic quality principal of being at the same time both reactive and catalyser. This is, as proven above, the result of a permanent education, of an ongoing self – education based on the role of quality in the social life of every person, of every people.
The transfer ratio is an assessment instrument within the educational process in the case of a formative assessment. The paper reviews the formative assessment method, offers concrete examples in learning situations, and interprets the modality of differentiation based on the value of that ratio.
Il nۥest pas suffisant dۥệtre tuteur, mais il est important dۥệtre un „bon” tuteur.
Dans la littérature de spécialité on a identifié six qualités essentielles pour un bon tuteur:
un bon tuteur est impliqué dans la tache de conseiller les débutants;
un bon tuteur accepte les professeurs débutants;
un bon tuteur constitue un support instructionnel;
un bon tuteur est efficace dans des contextes interpersonnels différents;
un bon tuteur est un modèle dۥapprentissage continuel;
un bon tuteur communique de lۥespoir et de lۥoptimisme.
Portofoliul elevului presupune implicarea activa în crearea, colectarea si selectarea produselor, ceea ce-i conferă o importanta valoare instructiva. Elevii învaţă despre ei înşişi în timpul întocmirii portofoliului ceea ce oferă profesorilor, posibilitatea descoperirii unor aspecte relevante pentru evoluţia elevilor, interpretarea rezultatelor, performanta , obiectivele si planurile de viitor.
În funcţie de evaluarea rezultatelor, profesorul, învăţătorul îşi poate modifica din componentele portofoliului, în urma diagnosticării elevilor supradotaţi, talentaţi, creativi, cu ajutorul testelor de inteligenta, aptitudini speciale si de personalitate. Elevul si profesorul stabilesc în comun componentele portofoliului, modalitatea de colectare, de înregistrare si folosire a elementelor reprezentative ale portofoliului pentru a stimula creativitatea, ingeniozitatea si implicarea personala a elevului.
One of the most important ideas when we speak about unity of science and its practical aspects is transdisciplinarity. Transdisciplinarity refers to the total unity of science containing all the components of knowledge. A research which corresponds to a certain degree of transdisciplinarity will be closer to multidisciplinarity; one which corresponds to another degree will be closer to interdisciplinarity; and that corresponding to yet another degree will be closer to disciplinarity. „Disciplinarity, multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity are like four arrows shot from but a single bow: knowledge.”(Basarab Nicolescu). This unity is not achieved by an artificial addition of information but by its being re-interpreted and re-arranged at a different level. So, the transdisciplinarity tries to make a revolution in all aspects of the science (including pedagogy), and a profound reform of human society.
This is the reason why we consider transdisciplinarity the most optimistic theory of unity of knowledge and the very important transformation is inside of pedagogy. The education is not only an object of reformation but is also the principal instrument of them. The new pedagogy is centred in the man problem and must respect the Chart of Transdisciplinarity signed in Arrabida in 1994. The plans presented in Arrabida were grandiose and the pedagogical reforms very profound, but the generosity of the theory is also the source of its limits. In this paper we will present the theory of transdisciplinarity, the pedagogical aspects t it limits.
The essential point of the present paper is the argumentation of the thesis that the efficiency of any educational system could be validated rigorously and verifiably first and foremost by the level of self-management of those included in an educational system, acquired by them in various phases of an educational process and at its end.
This paper is an integrated part of a larger empirical
investigation, realized in
Repere in definirea notiunii de „ consumator ”
Des repères dans la définition du concept de „consommateur”
Pour déterminer la catégorie „des contrats achevés avec les consommateurs”, l´essai de circonscription de la notion se rapportera, en principe, au critère de la qualité d´une des parties contractantes – au consommateur et, par conséquent, à la qualité de „consommateur” de la partie du contrat à laquelle on assure la protection. La détermination de la catégorie montrée est nécessaire en matière contractuelle, parce que, c’est seulement aux contrats où „le consommateur” détient la qualité de partie du contrat, que les normes caractéristiques issues de la tendance de rétablir l’équilibre contractuel seront applicables. Par conséquent, le critère utilisé détermine, d’une façon essentielle, le domaine d’application des réglementations qui gouvernent les rapports entre les commerçants et les consommateurs.
PARTICIPAŢIA PENALĂ ÎN
CAZUL INFRACŢIUNILOR ÎNDREPTATE ÎMPOTRIVA CAPACITĂŢII
DE APĂRARE A ROMÂNIEI
Penal participation in case of
offences against the defense ability of
This paper is meant to be a theoretical analysis of
the way the occasional participation can be present in case of offences against
the defense ability of
Aspects regarding the effects of
the Security Council's resolutions and the specific documents of the European
The UN Security Council or the EU Council adopt documents such as resolutions or joint actions in order to establish sanctions concerning not only classic subjects of the international law, but also other entities, such as individual persons or terrorist groups.
This situation determines a reevaluation of the structure and traditional concepts of the international law; consequently, national measures must be adopted in order to be able to implement those sanctions.
For this purpose,
The author draws the attention on the difficulties of the implementation of international sanctions in the national law, such as: the new nature of some measures (“freezing the founds”), the absence of a unique judicial framework (the existence of the Law206/2005 and the Law on fighting and preventing terrorism), the complexity of the problem viewed as a whole (the mandatory nature and the direct effect of the European Union documents, on one hand, and the mandatory effect of the Security Council's resolutions, without having direct effect, on the other hand), the existence of some disorderly administrative practices (ANCEX takes immediate measures in order to implement these sanctions, based on the provisions of the Law establishing the conditions of export control on technologies and products with double use) and last, but not least, the necessity to respect the human being and his/her rights and freedoms, no matter if he/she is guilty or not.
One of the conclusions of the author is that the individual does not have an adequate protection when he/she is the subject of international sanctions, because the mechanism for the elaboration of the lists is not well-grounded, he/she does not have the possibility to dispute the measures taken against him/her. These are the reasons why there is an actual risk to breach his right to safety, his right to a judicial review, his right to property etc.
The globalization and the effects of accession to international organizations show their effects in all the directions of the social life, including the juridical sphere, so, nowadays, we could barely speak about a "national law"; the legal borrowings and exchanges between the common law system and the Latin-German system lead to the unification of procedures between the two systems, to the unification of the substantive law itself, and to the occurrence of alternative means to solve the litigation between parties. We already speak about a “juridical patrimony of the world”.
And the judges, who not long time ago limited themselves to interpret and apply the national law, started nowadays to get involved in activities related to the legislative process, the administration, or the accession. The supremacy of the law becomes the supremacy of the judiciary. And the judges, on one hand, will be more and more in the middle of the society, because of the activities in which they are involved, and, on the other hand, the judiciary will belong to the first among the public powers
The group of echonomical interest is created as a partnership between two or more natural or legal persons and its aim is to facilitate or to develop the echonomical activity of its members, to improve the results of their activity, on a determinated period.
The group of echonomical interest was first created in French Law and it was created as an intermediar structure between a trading company and an association.
The organisation and the function of a group of echonomical interest is increased on his members will.
The idea of creating a group of echonomical interest was born out of the necessity to provide a legal instrument what attenuates the formalism of a trading company but also removes the disadvantages of an association regarded to the lack of legal personality. The trading companies implied in such a group maintain both their administrative and functional authonomy and their own identity as a legal person.
Parallèlement au développement des techniques bancaires et financières dont le degré de sophistication ne cesse d’augmenter, les garanties en général et tout particulierement les garanties bancaires subissent actuellement une évolution notable.
D’une part, le droit privé met en balance la protection du débiteur et des tiers, face à l’efficacité des sûretés bancaires dont bénéficie le créancier et d’autre part il doit tenir compte aussi des répercussions éventuelles du régime des sûretés sur la solidité du système bancaire en général, du point de vue du contrôle prudentiel des banques, ce qui resortit au droit public. La solidité du système bancaire renforcée par les règles de la législation bancaire sur les fonds propres serve de garantie ultime pour les créanciers des banques en cas de défaillance. Les garanties bancaires jouent aussi un rôle important en matière de répartition des risques.
Dans la mesure où la compensation des opérations réciproques est valable du point de vue juridique, il en résulte une diminution substantielle du risque bancaire, puisqu’en cas de défaillance d’une partie, les risques de crédit et de liquidité ne portent alors que sur le solde net des opérations et non pas sur leur volume brut total, ce qui a lien avec la fonction de sûreté que la compensation peut remplir. Pour offrir au milieu des affaires un instrument de protection contre le risque valutaire, par la Loi no 85/2006 sur la procédure collective a été introduit dans la législation civile roumaine l’institution de « netting », en reconnaissant aux parties le droit de compensation bilatérale dans le cadre des contrats financiaires qualifiés.
Après 1989, les banques centrales des divers États et les autorités des surveillances bancaires sont préocupées de la sécurité du payement internationel, tout particulierement ceux consolidés en clearing ou le netting multilateral des ordres de payement, à cause de grand volume de payements et des risques attirés par les banques impliquées.
A complex operation, with major, irreversible effects for the company in itself, for its shareholders and creditors, the division of a company is done within an ample procedure regulated by Title VI, Chapter II of Law no.31/1990 as republished and amended.
The ampleness of the legal effects of the division justified the lawmaker’s concern to protect, by express dispositions, the creditors and shareholders’ interests as well. In what concerns the shareholders, the present form of the law, acquired by the amendment brought by Law no.441/2006, includes as a premiere the division into the category of the express causes of withdrawal from the company (art.134).
The application of the text offered, already, in practice, the source of controversial solutions, generated by the correct determination of the moment in which, within the division procedure, the interested shareholders may exercise their withdrawal right, under the terms according to which, the extraordinary general assembly will meet twice, in two distinct phases, in order to rule on the division.
This material tries to analyze the arguments in favor of the opinion according to which the exercise of the withdrawal right must be done within the 30 days term following the first general assembly meeting within the procedure.
The role of this intercession is considered fulfilled to the extent in which, challenging the continuation of the analysis, new arguments, legal and economic, at the same time logic and integrated to the complex operation of the division, may substantiate the most correct solution to follow.
L’unification du droit international privé a l’avantage d’offrir des solutions uniformes pour les jurisdictions des pays différents, mais il faut tenir compte, le même temps, du spécifique de chaque législation nationale.
Le premier pas dans ce processus est représenté par l’unification dans l’espace européen, dont les instruments sont: la Conférence de droit international privé de la Haye, la Cour de Justice des Communautés Européenne, le Conseil de l’Europe, la Commission internationale d’état civile, les conventions internationales (Traité de Amsterdam, Convention de Bruxelles sur la compétence et l’éxecution des décisions en matière civile et commerciale (1968), la Convention de Rome sur les obligations contractuelles – 1980) et les Réglements du Conseil de l’Europe.
L’unification régionale est réalisée aussi par le Code Bustamante et les conventions adoptées par l’Union Nordique. Le Code de droit international privé conçu dans la sixième réunion de l’Union Nordique réglemente les aspects concernant la compétence en matière civile et commerciale, la loi personnelle – comme lex causae pour la capacité de la personne phisique, lex loci contractus şi lex executionis – pour la forme solennelle du contrat, la reconnaissance et l’éxecution des décisions étrangères.
La carte d’identité est un document comparable au passeport que les citoyens de nombreux pays, y compris démocratiques, sont légalement tenus de porter sur eux en permanence. Il peut s’agir de cartes ou d’autres titres qui contiennent des données permettant l’identification du porteur : nom, âge, adresse. La tendance actuelle est d’incorporer des données biométriques caractéristiques pour chaque individu. Mais ils sont nombreux ceux qui considerènt ce type d’encartement comme un des principaux instruments d’oppression gouvernementale.
Les décisions du Traité de l’institution de la Communauté Européenne, qui sont devenues obligatoires pour notre pays aussi après le 1-er janvier 2007, ont été anticipées par la législation interne pour créer un systéme législatif cohérent, compatible aux normes juridiques européennes.
L‘analyse d’une activité économique, au sens d’établir si elle est prohibite ou elle s’encadre parmi les exceptions permises par l’UE, suppose aussi la définition plus exacte de certains concepts juridiques, comme position dominante, entreprises, marché rélévant, concurrence efficiente etc. A cet égard, la pratique CJCE est un instrument extrêmement utile dans l’application de la législation interne aussi.
The individual labor contract is characterized by the inter-conditioning of two inseparable elements: the work executed by the employee and its remuneration by the employer.
In certain circumstances, provided by the law, the employee that does not perform his/her fundamental obligation can benefit from a financial support, paid from other sources than the organization's wage fund. This takes the shape of indemnifications, others than the variable part of the salary.
The rights of personality, initial creation of the doctrine and jurisprudence, have encountered a strong development during the last decades, being legally sanctioned in many legal systems.
Beyond the notion, the multiple classifications that the rights of personality may acquire, this approach has as an aim the occurrence of the personality rights in different law systems, as well as of the sanctions applicable in case of infringing them.
The purpose of this essay is on one side, to bring up again to discussion an issue on which the specialized literature has not insisted from many times now and, on the other side, to reveal issues regarding topical labour relationships within the co-operative societies in domestic industry regulation. Yet, considering the background and the timeframe to which our initiative is referring to, we shall not proceed here to an exposition and an analysis of the entire scheme of institutions that might be incident in the domain that is concerning us. Such exposition and analysis will be widely deliberated upon once with the compilation of a broad monograph dedicated to this subject.
Le respect de la corespondance entre le fait et le droit représent une revendication indispensable du procès de mise en place des lois. Pour être efficace la loi doit être conçue comme un moyen de coordination des intérêts de différents groupes sociaux; elle doit exprimer l' interêt général, de compromis des communautés sociales. L' utilisation des technologies de coordonation des intérêts constitue un moyen important de prévention de lémission des lois dans des intérêts Corporatifs.
Theoretical and practical aspects regarding THE article 38 of the Law
248/2005 on the free move
In the process of
After the accession of
The sanctions regarding the limitation of the exercise
of the right of free movement can be found in article
This reality brings up the necessity of reevaluating the Law 248/2005, in which those limitations should be either eliminated or the reasons for the limitation should be brought in compliance with the communitarian law.
La présente étude met en discussion les réglementations constitutionnelles, et non seulement, relatives à la délégation législative et les états de siège et d’urgence. Concrètement on a soumis à l’attention la possibilité que le Gouvernement, par la voie des ordonnances d’urgence pendant les états de siège et d’urgence puisse restreindre l’exercice de certains droits et libertés.
De l’analyse de la législation en vigueur, la conclusion à laquelle nous nous sommes arrêtés a été celle que, dans le cas de états de siège et d’urgence nous n’avons affaire à la délégation législative que dans la situation où, à la lumière de l’art. I point 5 de la Loi no. 453/2004, le Gouvernement, par ordonnance d’urgence, en appellerait à la restriction de certains droits et libertés et seulement, dans les conditions où nous allons considérer les ordonnances d’urgence comme l’expression de la délégation législative.
Ainsi que pouvons observé de l’analyse du Code civile de République de Moldavie, le législateur moldave a essayé définir les certains institutions, le chose qu’il, selon notre opinion, n’était pas indiqué, car ont été commis une série des erreurs graves, qu’elles font pratiquement impossible la juste application de la législation en pratique. La même chose a été commise avec la définition de patrimoine, la définition assumée par la littérature de spécialité, mais qu’elle peut-être soumit à quelques critiques.
Capturarea forţată în
Nicolae-Dragoş Ploeşteanu, Attila Kis
This article will analyze the legal aspects of forcible abduction of terrorist suspects, examining the problem from the perspective of international human rights and its inter-state implications. Generally, states gain custody over individuals charged with crimes that can be found outside their borders by the means of extradition. After the 9/11 attacks, and in the context of intensification of terrorist (and anti-terrorism) activity from all over the world, some states, considering extradition too complicated or inadequate, acted unilaterally by abducting terrorism suspects from other states by the use of force, and most importantly, without the consent of the territorial state.
The article will present a brief history of abducting practices, and also will examine the matter from the point of view of the European Convention of Human Rights, as it is applied for the theory of forcible abduction by the Court in the famous Öcalan v. Turkey case. The practice of the Human Rights Committee in the lights of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights also will be briefly presented. Without embracing a pro or contra position, it is required that the arguments, and the relevant rules of international law that can be violated by such practices or that (as it is sustained by some scholars and the practice) are sitting at the core of the rules that may allow the forcible abduction of terrorist suspects to be presented.
NECONSTITUŢIONALITATEA CARACTERULUI ADMINISTRATIV-JURISDICŢIONAL CONFERIT DE CĂTRE LEGEA NR. 18/1991 A FONDULUI FUNCIAR ACTIVITĂŢII COMISIILOR JUDEŢENE DE APLICARE A LEGII FONDULUI FUNCIAR. NECONSTITUŢIONALITATEA OBLIGATIVITĂŢII PARCURGERII PROCEDURII ADMINISTRATIV- JURISDICŢIONALE ÎN MATERIA SOLUŢIONĂRII LITIGIILOR
L’ Inconstitutionnalité du caractère administratif juridictionnel conféré par la Loi no. 18/1991 du fond foncier à l’activité des commissions départementales de mise en application de la Loi du fond foncier. L’ Inconstitutionnalité de l’obligativité du parcours de la procédure administrative juridictionnelle en matière de la solution des litiges de fond foncier.
Une des modifications significatives apportées à la Constitution de la Roumanie de l’année 1991, par la révision constitutionnelle de l’année 2003, conformément aux dispositions de l’article 6, alinéa 1 de la Convention Européenne des droits de l’homme, qui consacre un texte capital en matière du droit à un procès équitable et à la solution des causes à un terme raisonnable, a été la suppression du caractère obligatoire des juridictions spéciales administratives, qui, en plusieurs cas, n’accomplissaient pas les conditions d’indépendance face à l’exécutif ou face aux parties.
En partant de ces dispositions constitutionnelles, on pose le problème si l’activité de quelques autorités administratives, comme est celle des commissions départementales avec l’application de la Loi du fond foncier auxquelles la Loi confère expressivement un caractère administratif juridictionnel, accomplissent les conditions d’un « tribunal » en vertu de l’article 6 alinéa 1 de CEDO, caractérisé par l'indépendance et l'impartialité.
Compte tenu de ces considérations, l’étude présente se propose l’analyse de la nature juridique de ces commissions par rapport aux dispositions constitutionnelles et à celles de l’article 6, alinéa 1 de CEDO.
Cet article commence avec la question suivante: quelles ont paru les premières, les obligations contractuelles ou celles délictuelles? La réponse est cherche en analysant quelques textes des auteurs classiques.
In this paper, the author presents the doctrinal opinions about the sexual corruption of active and passive subjects. The conditions for a person to be an active or passive subject of the felony are analyzed, including their practical connections.
Sancţiuni internaţionale adoptate împotriva persoanelor, sub auspiciile Naţiunilor Unite sau prin acte ale Uniunii Europene, în lupta împotriva terorismului. Unele aspecte privind implicaţiile adoptării acestora din perspectiva respectării drepturilor omului
International sanctions adopted against
persons, under the aegis of the United Nation or through documents issued by
Some resolutions adopted by the UN Security Council according to title VII of the UN Charter regard the freezing of funds of persons listed in those resolutions. The EU, through specific documents, transposed those measures. The way those lists are drawn up has been frequently criticised, because in the process of their issuance, some of the rights of the listed persons were not observed, fundamental rights laid down in international instruments on human rights and in the legislation of states, such as: the right to a fair trial, the right to a fair hearing, the right to property, the right of defence, the right to judicial review etc. This way of action is at least arguable, taking into consideration the fact that all it takes is a suspicion regarding a person’s involvement in terrorist activities, for a state to propose her/him for the inclusion on a list.
The authors of those lists say that they weighted the fundamental rights of the victims of sanctions and the fundamental rights of the victims of terrorism and, especially, their right to life. Such reasoning constitutes a premiere in the field of human rights, opening, in this way, the “Pandora’s box”, as far as “flexible limits” of fundamental rights are concerned.
The presumption of innocence enshrined in paragraph 2 of Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights is one of the elements of a fair trial that is required by paragraph 1 of the same article. According to the European Court of Human Rights case law, the presumption of innocence will be violated if a judicial decision or a statement by a public official concerning a person charged with a criminal offence reflects an opinion that he is guilty before he has been proved guilty according to law.
In the following study, I will examine some aspect of the Romanian criminal procedure that can be deemed to be breaching this important right, many of them unfortunately still largely employed in courts' practice.
The Romanian Parliament has recently adopted the Law no. 262/2007 concerning the modification and the completion of the administrative contentious Law no. 554/2004. Both the modifications and the completions have been imperiously necessary because, on one hand, the constitutional contentious court admitted two important exceptions of unconstitutionality that referred to the same no. of norms comprised by this law, without that the legislator concretely apply the provisions of article 147 of the Romanian Constitution as revised and modified, and, on the other hand, one has wished to adapt some institutions to the life’s necessities, a need many times emphasized within the jurisprudence. Meanwhile, the modification law brought some absolute novelties related to the internal law. We certainly refer to the regulation for the first time of a new revision reason that describes and puts forward the principle of the priority of the EU law compared to the internal law, which represents a constitutional rule in the article 148 paragraph 2 of the Fundamental Law and offers, in this way, a fertile land upon which the EU law can be fully developed.
Through the present study we desire to emphasize both the positive aspects that offer a secure progress and a significant evolution related to the administrative contentious institution and a critical eye, necessary for any scientific approach, sometimes accompanied by some modification proposals or by personal opinions that should determine the legislator's reflection.
It was a long and difficult process to organize a
control of law constitutionality in
Code civil du République de Moldavie considère que ne sont pas illicites les actions commises dans l’intention de autodéfense. Ainsi que la loi place la défense personnelle au point tangentiel avec les autres institutions, par exemple, l’actes d`arbitraire, la définition de défense personnelle et la détermination des circonstances que forment le contenu de celle-ci impose une analyse plus ample que seulement de la perspective de droit civil.
In view of the development of the international criminal law, and taking into consideration that there are multilateral conventions that incriminate such crimes, there is a tendency to prosecute and to punish those “internationally” suspected with such crimes.
Nowadays, there are several international tribunals that are specialized to deal with international crimes (The International Criminal Court, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, etc.)
The basic question of this article is whether the International Court of Justice is entitled to investigate or to trial cases involving international crimes. The answer seems to be clear, the ICJ dealing only with cases between states, it cannot condemn a person, for example, for genocide; however, the Court, in resolving legal differences between states, has the obligation to apply inter alia the relevant principles of international criminal law, or the treaties in force between the parties in the case and that are dealing with international criminal law. The problem is more interesting if we ask if a state can commit such crime, or when a state can be held internationally responsible for crimes committed by one of its citizens against other states. The problem will be analyzed by taking into consideration the relevant case law of the ICJ by exploring the recent judgment given in the Bosnian Genocide Case.
AND LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN
In the context of the consensus that the average net
The undertaken study aims at highlighting some of the notable references and arguments regarding the national accountancy placing within the social sciences and, most of all, within the economic sciences.
The article content shows the specialists steps taken against and for the national accountancy as a scientific subject and a social practice.
The final part of the article underlines some of the arguments that make us consider the national accountancy as a scientific subject .
From the ancient times, the future captured the interest of illuminated people’s mind. The attempts for prediction, foresight, prophecy future events increased at the same time with lapse and according to this lapse. The end of the XXth century and the beginning of the XXIth century distinguish among others trough a substantial growth of investigationes and researches in the domain of the futuritiest too. The futurities elaborated a lot of forecasts, they formultated and continuu to formulate paradigmes, visions, theories and sorts of projects even if they don’t draw any conclusion.
One of the most recent vision in the domain consider that global movement of contemporary world is directed “From National States to the Domains of Economy” elaborated by the well known american economist John Naisbitt.
Our paper presents in synthesis the main content of ideas of theories the arguments for supporting it in a cognitive plan awarding attractiveness the processes that are going to develop the features difineing the foresight future and changed in the present. Concomitantly is appreciated the credibility of the arguments (the power of convinction) and the degree of their certainty. In the main time the paper tries to pick up elements that might support a global enlightened strategy of a world economy organically structured on economic domains.
REGIONAL ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES IN
Some aspects of the economic differences between the
regions and within the regions of
The study comprises the main theoretical and methodological aspects of grounding and use of system of indexes of evidence, analysis and forecast of forestry and forest economy.
The approached matters regard the structural components of the index system, concepts used and their definition, groups of indexes and forest – economic-mathematic patterns of grounding the forest fund, forest resources, production and sale of goods and services in forestry and forest economy.
Des considérations sur la notion de concentration économique
La notion de concentration économique a été définie pour la première fois dans le contenu de la Loi 21/1996. Les interprétations données à cette notion sont différentes, tant dans la pratique et que dans la littérature juridique, roumaine et étrangère. Cette étude se propose d’établir en quelle mesure les différentes interprétations de la notion de concentration économique peuvent avoir une influence dans le cadre des démarches judiciaires exercées sur la base des réglementations adoptées dans le droit de la concurrence.
In the discussion about the effects of globalization, specialists have initially assumed that the economical development would lead to convergent consumer needs and tastes, which would justify the standardization of marketing and advertising. On the other hand, recently it has been signaled more and more often that rationality is not a fundamental characteristic of consumers and that they would not necessarily prefer cheap products to those they got used to.
There are proofs in favor of convergent economical systems, but none in favor of convergent value systems. On the contrary, in the context of convergent incomes, consumption habits are very different, because more discretionary income gives people the freedom to better express themselves according to their own preferences.
The correlations I underlined in this paper between the differences in the acquisition and use of clothing items and the cultural dimensions of the Hofstede model (power distance, individualism/ collectivism, femininity/ masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation/ short-term orientation) lead to the necessity of reconsidering the impact of cultural values on consumer behavior. Culture shapes consumption behavior and this fact cannot be questioned since income, starting with a certain level (that means when its level is high enough so that individuals can fully express their tastes) loses its explanatory value as far as consumer decisions are concerned and is replaced by a more precise predictor, culture. If international marketing decisions are to be efficient, they must take into account the cultural aspects that drive consumer decisions, otherwise the consequences could be dramatic, since cultural values are extremely persistent.
Discrimination on the labour market increases the vulnerability of different social groups and subgroups which face social marginalisation and exclusion by restricting their access to several mechanisms of social participation. Also, multiple discrimination represents specific forms of discrimination which affect individuals belonging to two or more vulnerable social groups. Investigating these specific forms of discrimination is important for a better knowledge of the causes and forms of social marginalisation, as well as for a better focus of the actions/policies for preventing and fighting discrimination. Investigating such a complex phenomenon as discrimination poses lots of methodological issues, while investigating multiple discrimination is a much more challenging and difficult process. Therefore, our scientific project develops a research methodology for investigating multiple discrimination on the Romanian labour market through a questionnaire based survey. The results highlight the social subgroups which are mostly affected by multiple discrimination, as well as its causes and specific forms with respect to both access to employment and quality of the employment.
„Unternehmenskrisen sind außerordentliche, aber vermeidbare Phänomene der Unternehmensentwicklung.“
Die meisten Unternehmen erkennen aber diese kritische Situationen nicht. Wenn ein Unternehmen noch rechtzeitig die Probleme erkennt und bereit ist gegenzusteuern, dann entwickelt sich der „Turnaround“.
Um die Ursachen einer Krise aufzudecken und um kurzfristig realisierbare, und mächtige Maßnahmen zu entwickeln, braucht man eine grundlegende und detaillierte Analyse. Ein nahezu unerlässliches Instrument hierzu ist die PMS–Analyse (Produkt–Markt–Segmentierung). Diese hilft, die in komplexen Strukturen versteckten Probleme zu finden und Lösungsansätze abzuleiten.
In gewachsenen Unternehmen ist selten transparent, mit welchen Produkten und mit welchen Kunden bzw. auf welchen Märkten das Unternehmen Gewinne und Verluste erwirtschaftet.
Die Analyse ermöglicht eine differenzierte Profitabilitätsbetrachtung. Sie besteht darin, das Unternehmen in eigenständige Segmente oder Geschäftsfelder zu gliedern, die eine bestimmte Produkt–Markt–Technologie–Kombination besitzen.
Nachdem die Analyse durchgeführt wird, stellt man für jedes dieser Produkt–Markt–Segmente eine eigene Profitabilitäts- bzw. Gewinn- und Verlustrechnung auf Vollkostenbasis auf.
Diese offenbart einfach und übersichtlich Quersubventionierungen, Prozessschwächen, Einkaufspotentiale und ähnliche Ansätze zur Restrukturierung. Die Aufgabe von Geschäftsfeldern, Forcierung von Marktsegmenten, oder andere ertragsteigernden Maßnahmen können hierauf aufgesetzt werden.
THEFT AND TAXATION
Who has an interest in finding out during the history facts about the notion of the economy finds out many changes both in content and sphere. From a certain domain of human live – that of the production and reproduction of man’s exterior goods – one has come up to an economy that absorbs all the domainsof life: political, religious, artistic, military, sportive, forecast etc.
In order to test this general level of the notion of economy, the present study focus briefly on the theft and exaggerated and/or unfair taxation face to face to labour as well as man’s finality.
LA NIVELUL UNIUNII EUROPENE
COMPETITIVE AND FISCAL HARMONIZATION AT E.U. LEVEL
The affiliation of Romania at the E.U. space reprezent an extraordinary chance for overcoming his economical return trap.
In our study we express some considerations about the corelation between the fiscal policy at national level of the members states and the working of the harmonized fiscal system at the community level. This harmonization constitue a demand for every state in order to ensure a correct fiscal competition at the community level.