ANUARUL INSTITUTULUI DE ISTORIE
„George Bari
țiu din Cluj-Napoca
XL
IV

Series Historica - 2005

COMITETUL DE REDACȚIE:

CAMIL MUREȘANU (redactor responsabil)
IOAN CHINDRIȘ (secretar de redacție)
ELA COSMA
GELU NEAMȚU
SUSANA ANDEA
GHEORGHE IANCU
SIMION RETEGAN
  

 

ISSN 1584-4390
Revista se poate procura prin / Toute commande sera adressée
à:
EDITURA ACADEMIEI ROMÂNE, Calea 13 Septembrie, nr. 13, Sector 5, 050711, București, România; Tel. 4021-318 8146, 4021-318 8106, Fax: 4021-318 2444; e-mail: edacad@ear.ro;
RODIPET S.A., Piața Presei Libere nr. 1, Sect. 1, P.O. Box 33-57, București, România, Tel. 4021-318 7000; 4021-318 7001, Fax 4021-318 7002, 4021-318 7003; e-mail: rodipet@rodipet.ro;
ORION PRESS IMPEX 2000 S.R.L., Șos. Viilor nr. 101, sector 5, Bl. 1, sc. 4, ap. 98, parter, P.O. Box 77-19, sector 3, București, România, Tel. 4021-335 0296, 4021/301 8786, Fax 4021-335 0296; e-mail: office@orionpress.ro 

REDACȚIA: Institutul de Istorie „George Barițiu”, str. Napoca, nr. 11, Cluj-Napoca, 400088 România, Tel. 40264-59 83 43.


 
Ó 2005, EDITURA ACADEMIEI ROMÂNE
Calea 13 Septembrie nr. 13, sector 5, București

Tel. 4021-4103200
www.ear.ro

CONTENTS

 

CUPRINS

CAMIL MUREȘANU, Ioan Lupaș (1880-1967)

9

CAMIL MUREȘANU, Ioan Lupaș (1880-1967)

 

STUDIES AND ARTICLES

 

 

STUDII ȘI ARTICOLE

ALEXANDRU ȘIMON, Djem’s World. Buda, Suceava and Istanbul in the Year 1480

11

ALEXANDRU ȘIMON, Lumea lui Djem. Buda, Suceava și Istanbul în anii 1480

AUGUSTIN MUREȘAN, OLIVIAN MUREȘAN, Oltenia’s County emblems on the Seal of Alexandru Scarlat Ghica, Caimacam (Ruler) of Craiova

45

AUGUSTIN MUREȘAN, OLIVIAN MUREȘAN, Stemele județelor Olteniei de pe sigiliul lui Alexandru Scarlat Ghica, caimacam al Craiovei

PETER WEBER, The Romanians from Transylvania and Hungary in the Middle of the 19th Century, in John Paget’s Journey notes

51

PETER WEBER, Românii din Transilvania și Ungaria la mijlocul secolului al XIX-lea în impresiile de călătorie ale lui John Paget

DAN DEMȘEA, The Romanian Tradebourgeoisie from Arad during the Years 1828-1872

61

DAN DEMȘEA, Burghezia meșteșugărească română din părțile Aradului între anii 1828-1872

DANIELA DETEȘAN, „Lemeny’s Trial” (1843-1846). Development, Consequences and Meaning

101

DANIELA DETEȘAN, „Procesul lemenian” (1843-1846). Desfășurare, consecințe și însemnătate

LIVIU BOTEZAN, IOANA BOTEZAN (Jr.), Expression Forms and Particularities of the Peasants’ Actions from the Szekler Seats in the Spring of the Year 1848

121

LIVIU BOTEZAN, IOANA BOTEZAN (Jr.), Formele de manifestare și specificul acțiunilor țărănești din scaunele secuiești în primăvara anului 1848

GELU NEAMȚU, VIOREL CÎMPEAN, Aspects of the 1848 Revolution in the Region of Satmar

149

GELU NEAMȚU, VIOREL CÎMPEAN, Aspecte ale Revoluției de la 1848 în părțile Sătmarului

LORÁND MÁDLY, Attempts of Political Activity at the Transylvanian Saxons after 1850. The Ceasing of the Activity of the Saxon National University and the New Political Order in the Saxon Land

173

LORÁND MÁDLY, Încercări de activitate politică ale sașilor transilvăneni după 1850. Încetarea activității Universității săsești și noua ordine politică a pământului crăiesc

VLAD POPOVICI, Elites and Political Strategies in the Romanian National Movement in Transylvania (1869-1894). Study of Case: the Activismus-Passivismus Dispute

193

VLAD POPOVICI, Elite și strategii politice în mișcarea națională românească din Transilvania (1869-1894). Studiu de caz: disputa activism-pasivism

GHERGHINA BODA, George Bariț – Forerunner of the Romanian Museography in Transylvania 220

213

GHERGHINA BODA, George Bariț – precursor al muzeografiei românești din Transilvania

Pr. GHEORGHE NAGHI, The Painter Nicolae Popescu (1835-1877). Preliminaries

223

Pr. GHEORGHE NAGHI, Pictorul Nicolae Popescu (1835-1877). Preliminarii

ALEXANDRU MAMINA, European Monarchy Types at the End of the 19th and the Beginning of the 20th Centuries

245

ALEXANDRU MAMINA, Tipuri monarhice europene la sfârșitul secolului al XIX-lea și începutul secolului XX

GHEORGHE IANCU, Valeriu Braniște (1869-1928) at „Tribuna” in Sibiu (1893)

269

GHEORGHE IANCU, Valeriu Braniște (1869-1928) la „Tribuna” din Sibiu (1893)

MIHAI MITRAȘCĂ, Romanian Perceptions of Japan before World War Two. The School Textbooks

287

MIHAI MITRAȘCĂ, Romanian Perceptions of Japan before World War Two. The School Textbooks

STELIAN MÂNDRUȚ, Ethnocultural Coexistence and Parallel Lifes in the Magazine „Banatul” (1926-1930)

315

STELIAN MÂNDRUȚ, Coexistența etnoculturală și viețile paralele din revista  „Banatul” (1926-1930)

GABRIEL MOISA, „Road Comrades” of the Communists in the Crișana-Maramureș „Regionala”, 1944-1953. Study of Case: the Peasants’Front (Frontul Plugarilor)

331

GABRIEL MOISA, „Tovarășii de drum” ai comuniștilor în Regionala Crișana-Maramureș. 1944-1953. Studiu de caz. Frontul Plugarilor

ANDREEA FÛRTŐS, Arested High Officials. Study of Case: Ilie Lazăr (1947-1964)

349

ANDREEA FÛRTŐS, Demnitari arestați. Studiu de caz: Ilie Lazăr (1947-1964)

OTTMAR TRAȘCĂ, Aspects during the First Years of the Collectivization of Agriculture in Romania, 1949-1952. Study of Case: the Region Cluj

385

OTTMAR TRAȘCĂ, Aspecte privind primii ani ai colectivizării agriculturii în România. 1949-1952. Studiu de caz: the Regiunea Cluj

LÁSZLÓ MÁRTON, Actions of the Peasants against the Setting Up and Function of the Collective Agricultural Associations in the Mureș Region (September 1950 – December 1951)

407

LÁSZLÓ MÁRTON, Acțiuni ale țăranilor împotriva înființării și funcționării Gospodăriilor Agricole Colective în regiunea Mureș (septembrie 1950 – decembrie 1951)

GABRIEL CATALAN, Institutions, Practices and Personalities at the Beginning of the Sovjetization of the Romanian Culture and Historiography

439

GABRIEL CATALAN, Instituții, practici și personalități la începuturile sovietizării culturii și istoriografiei românești

PETRE OPRIȘ, The Romanian Defence Industry before the Foundation of the Organization of the Warshaw Treaty

463

PETRE OPRIȘ, Industria românească de apărare înainte de înfiițarea organizației Tratatului de la Varșovia

 

CONTRIBUTIONS

 

CONTRIBUTIONS

FLORINA CIURE, Libri e manoscritti riguardanti i Principati Romeni   conservati nella biblioteca del civico museo Correr di Venezia (secc. XVI-XIX)

483

FLORINA CIURE, Libri e manoscritti riguardanti i Principati Romeni   conservati nella biblioteca del civico museo Correr di Venezia (sec. XVI-XIX)

ELA COSMA, A Project of  Landroad Modernization and of Organzation of the First Public Lottery in Transylvania, 1773

503

ELA COSMA, Un prioect de modernizare a drumurilor și de organizare a primei loterii publice din Transilvania, 1773

GELU NEAMȚU, The Priest Ioan Bucur Pop from Budiu de Câmpie, Hero and Martyr 1848-1849

525

GELU NEAMȚU, Preotul Ioan Bucur Pop din Budiu de Câmpie, erou și martir la 1848-1849

IOAN BOLOVAN, The Transylvanian Jews between 1870-1930. Demographical Contributions

539

IOAN BOLOVAN, Evreii din Transilvania între 1870-1930. Contribuții demografice

GHEORGHE IANCU, Aspects of Iuliu Maniu’s Political Activity in the Years 1910 and 1919

551

GHEORGHE IANCU, Aspecte din activitatea politică a lui Iuliu Maniu în anii 1910 și 1919

IOAN CHINDRIȘ, The Correspondence between Corneliu Coposu and Simion Man (1976-1991)

573

IOAN CHINDRIȘ, Corespondența lui Corneliu Coposu cu preotul  Simion Man (1976-1991)

 

REVIEWS. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES

 

RECENZII. NOTE BIBLIOGRAFICE

 

CHRONICLE

 

CRONICĂ

Items of Vizibility of the History Institute „George Bariț” in the Year 2004

629

Indici de vizibilitate ai Institutului de Istorie „George Bariț”în anul 2004

Books Received 2004 by the Library of the History Institute „George Bariț”

641

Cărți intrate în Biblioteca Institutului de Istorie „George Bariț” în anul 2004

Professor Alexandru Husar at the Age of 85

644

Profesorul Alexandru Husar la 85 de ani

Professor Gligor Popi at the Age of 85

645

Profesorul Gligor Popi la 85 de ani

 

NECROLOG

 

NECROLOG

Dani Janos (1923-2005)

647

Dani Janos (1923-2005)

 

 

Abstracts

Zusammenfassungen

 

Alexandru Simon, “Djem’s World. Suceava, Buda and Istanbul in the Years 1480”, p. 11-44.

 

The events connecting the last months of Mehmed II’s rule to the early years of Bayezid II’s reign are the object of much controversy and uncertainty, for the involve both an Ottoman civil strife and the clashes between the Christian states and the Turk, in particular from the fight for Otranto (1480-1481) to the fall of the Moldavian harbors (1484). East-Central European historical and historiographical attention was drawn in particular to the events of 1483-1484, to the conflicts and negotiations that culminated with Bayezid II’s Moldavian campaign. Newfound sources, in particular from the Italian archives, allow us to offer new perspectives on a time and a figure which marked a turning point, especially from 1488 on, in the relations between the Christian powers, Greek and Latin, and the Muslim world, both Mamluk Egypt and the Ottoman Empire. The Djem crisis (1482-1495) led to the acceptance of the Porte, by the papacy too, after the failed crusader congress of Rome (1490), as an official diplomatic political partner (1491-1495). It equally revealed once more the differences in size, shape, power and attention between the Borderlands of Christendom and the actual core of the “Free Christian World”, between the different Christian political players, namely in Buda, Krakow, Suceava, in the border area.

 

 

Peter Weber, The Romanians from Transylvania and Hungary in the Middle of the 19th Century, in John Paget’s Journeynotes, p. 51-60.

  

  This article analyses the image of Romanians from Hungary and Transylvania at the middle of the 19th Century, as it was intercepted in journeynotes of John Paget. Thinking over the realities from Transylvania, John Paget draw a picture of imagology about identity-alterity relationship. In this respect, the author selects and analyses some relevant passages from John Paget’s work.

 

 

Dan Demșea, The Romanian Tradeburgoisie from Arad during the Years 1828-1872, p. 61-100.

 

  The author analyses from statistical point of view the numerical evolution of trade and manufacture burgoisie from Arad County in 1828-1872.

The analyse is structured on several levels: at first level, their political and administrative engagement and at a second level, their social and cultural activity.

The conclusion of the author is that the evolution of this social category was strongly influenced by political and economical transformation which took place over this period.

 

 

Daniela Deteșan, „Lemeny’s Trial” (1843-1846). Development, Consequences and Meaning, p. 101–121.

 

„Lemeny’s Trial” was the most disputed process from the modern era. There were confronted the Greek-Catholic bishop Ioan Lemeni and the group lead by Simion Bărnuțiu.

Ioan Lemeni dismissed one of the students from Faculty of Theology, from the traditional Washing of feet on the Holly Thursday 1843, because he had eaten meat. All twelve students refused to participate in the ceremony, saying or all, or not even one. This was the beginning of the process.

After that, the students and the professors adressed the governor of Transylvania, József Teleki, the rector of the Faculty of Theology, Vasile Rațiu, the emperor from Viena, Ferdinand I, the Primate of Esztergom, József Kopácsy, some demands.

The Roman-Catholic Archbishop named two committees to investigate the events happened in Blaj.

The final verdict was announced in March 1846, in Strigoniu Consistory: The bishop Ioan Lemeni was innocent. By this decision the „Lemeny’s Trial” was over.

After the begining of Revolution in Transylvania, Ioan Lemeni was suspended by gen. Puchner and forced to resign. In this period his major enemy, Simion Bărnuțiu, became the hero of the intellectuals and played a role as the spirit of the Romanian national movement  similar to that of Joseph Mazzini in Italy.

 

 

Liviu Botezan, Ioana Botezan jr., Expresion forms and Particularities of the Paeasnts’ Actons from the Szekler Seats in the Spring of the Year 1848, p. 121- 148.

 

Based on some archival sources, the authors investigate the mechanisms how the Szekler peasants had shaped their own atitude toward the revolution and especially their relationship with nobility. The landowners deputies from Gubernium in Cluj remarked the danger of solidarization between Szekler peasants and border guards against nobility and, in consequence, they recoursed to concessions and promisses which endorsed the abolition of serfdom. The aim pursued through these initiatives was that of avoiding the dissensions between the different social cathegories and to substitute them through a national solidarity.

 

 

Gelu Neamțu, Viorel Câmpean, Aspects of the 1848 Revolution in the Region of Satmar, p. 149-172.

 

The Study analyses the evolution of revolutionary events from 1848.1849 in north-western part of Transylvania – Satmar. Bsed on some new archival sources, the author retraces the most important moments of revolutionary moments. His conclusion is that can be remarked many similarities with what happened in Transylvania in the same years.

 

 

 Loránd Mádly, Versuche einer politischen Tätigkeit der Siebenbürger Sachsen nach 1850. Die Einstellung der Tätigkeit der Nationsuniversität und die Neuordnung des Königsbodens, 1850-1852, p.173-192.

 

  Im Jahr 1851 wurde ganz deutlich, dass die neue politische Einrichtung Siebenbürgens nicht mehr die den Siebenbürger Sachsen versprochenen Rechte in Acht nehmen wird. Nach diesem Jahr, im Kontext der Aufhebung der Märzverfassung, finden mehrere Beschränkungen der politischen Tätigkeit der Siebenbürger Sachsen statt – die Nationsuniversität wird aufgefordert eine letzte Sitzung zu halten, dem Sachsengraf wird eine andere Stelle zugewiesen, ohne einen Nachfolger wählen zu lassen und die Behörden sichern ihren Einfluss auch in den kommunalen und kirchlichen Angelegenheiten. In diesem Kontext versuchen die politischen Vertreter der Siebenbürger Sachsen das alte, spezifische System aufrecht zu erhalten und gegen die stattgefundenen Änderungen zu protestieren. Diese Tätigkeiten erreichen nicht die gehofften Resultate; im Jahr 1852 tritt eine Stille im politischen Leben der Siebenbürger Sachsen ein, die bis zum Ende des Neoabsolutismus dauern wird.

 

 

Vlad Popovici, Élites et des stratégies politiques dans le mouvement national roumain de Transylvanie (1869-1894). Etude de cas : la querelle activism-pasivism, p. 193-212.

 

En 1869, après la conférence de Miercurea, le Parti National Roumain de Transylvanie (PNRT) a adopté la tactique électorale passive, mais il y avait encore des hommes politiques qui considéraient l’activism comme la meilleure choix. Les deux fractions du PNRT (« les passivists » et « les activists ») ont tenté de gagner l’administration du parti, utilisant leur relations sociales (les amis, les relations familiales, les relations d’affaires etc.) « Les passivists » ont préservé l’administration du PNRT jusqu'à 1894, mais « les activists » ont utilise leur relations pour développer des stratégies de reproduction de l’élite et pour imposer des jeunes hommes dans le bureau exécutif du parti à la fin des années ’870.

 

 

Gherghina Boda, George Bariț –Foreruner of the Romanian Museography in Transylvania, p. 213-222.

 

The article reveal the preocupations of George Bariț for establishing the first modern museums and exhibitions in Transylvania. For this fact, Bariț can be considered the precursor of Romanian modern museology. Also, his rich publicistical activity recorded a significant number of articles regarding to the importance and utility of such cultural manifestations for Romanians from Transylvania.

 

 

Pr. Gheorghe Nagy, The Painter Nicolae Popescu (1835-1877). Preliminaries, p. 223-244.

 

Based on some new and another published sources, the author brings new informations about the life and activity of the painter Nicolae Popescu, one of the most important Romanian painters from Banat from the second half of the 19th Century. The author pleads for identification and recuperation of all  artistical works of the painter which, at that time had a very favourable echo in the whole Europe.

 

 

Alexandru Mamina, European Monarchy Types at the End of the 19th Century and the beginning of the 20th Centuries, p. 245-269.

 

Starting form the transformations which took place in the european societies in the second half of the 19 th Century, the author reveals that these phenomenons determined major changes also in what concerns the monarchical regimes. In this context, he identifies four types of monarchy: deomcratical, bureaucratical, oligarchical and absolutistical. After he analyses them separately, the author’s conclusion is that the onset of the evolution of this monarchical regimes must not be analysed through ideological grill of liberal-democratical finality, but from the structural-cultural perspective, relationed with social corp and meaned as reprezentation and social change systems, rather in parallel than in their inheritance.

 

 

Gheorghe Iancu, Valeriu Braniște (1869–1928) at „Tribuna” in Sibiu (1893), p. 269–287.

 

  Following a media scandal, provoked by the “Tribuna” newspaper’s editors, Ioan Russu-Șirianu, Septimiu Albini, Alexandru Balteș and Alexandru Dordea, they have been convicted to a few months of imprisonment. In this condition Ioan Rațiu, the president of the Romanian National Party has called Valeriu Braniște at the newspaper. At the time he was a teacher at the Orthodox High School in Brasov. He was head editor at the newspaper between Sept – Nov 1893.

  The article makes comments on the letters received by Valeriu Braniște from the prosecuted editors. The articles written by Valeriu Braniște in the newspaper columns are referring mostly at the Hungarian policy towards Romanians.

A special attention is accorded to the relationship of Valeriu Braniște with Eugen Brote the director and the owner of “Tribuna” newspaper. Eugen Brote was the one who eliminated Valeriu Braniște from the Sibiu’s newspapers.

 

 

 Mihai Mitrașcă, Romanian Perceptions of Japan before World War Second. The School Textbooks, p.287-314.

 

In the Romanian schoolbooks of the 19th century, Japan was presented as a country experimenting a rapid modernization, with a high rate of industrialization and consequently with a strenuous effort in order to improve the cultural development of its population. As regards the latter, the Japanese are characterized especially by their laboriousness and consciousness. Such images appear currently in primary school textbooks, for example in Dimitrie Gusti’s general geography coursebook, and in the geography books for secondary schools, written by M. Michaescu, Eliodor Butoianu, G.T. Buzoianu, Florea Stamatescu. The same images are also promoted in the first half of the 20th century, in Simion Mehedinți‘s geography coursebooks for the secondary schools, where Japan – “an England located in Asia” – becomes a real model to be followed in the modernization process, whereas the discipline of the Japanese population represents an example for the European peoples.

 

 

Stelian Mândruț, Ethnokulturelles Zusammenleben und paralleles Schicksal in der Zeitschrift “Banatul (1926-1930)[” S. 315-330.

 

Durch eine analytische Untersuchung versucht der Verfasser die Rolle, die die im Titel erwähnte monatliche Zeitschrift in der allgemeinen Entwicklung der rumänischen Presse in der Zwischenkriegszeit gespielt hat, zu identifizieren. Die komparatistische Perspektive, die in der Zeitschrift bevorzugt wurde, ist das Ergebnis einer langen historischen, geographischen, interkulturellen Tradition, eine Identität, die typisch für Banater Region ist.

 

 

Gabriel Moisa, „Road Comrades” of the Communists in Crișana-Maramureș „Regionala”, 1944–1953. Study of Case: the Peasants Front, p. 331–349.

 

  In September 1944 the organizations of the “Peasants Front” (“Frontul Plugarilor”) have been set up in the entire country. The organization was subordinated to the communists and its essential objective was fighting against the activity of the National Peasants’ Party from villages.

“Peasants Front” members from Crișana-Maramureș Regional Communist Romanian Party have been involved in election campaign for Parliament election from November 1946 and March 1948.

 

 

Andrea Fürtös, High Officials Arested. Study of Case: Ilie Lazăr, p. 349–383.

 

During Romanian sovietization, the communist state has eliminated the old democratic institutions, has abolished so called “historical party” and has promoted a policy of arresting of the leaders of other parties.

Ilie Lazăr, the deputy of National Peasants’ Party of Maramureș has been captured on July 14th, 1947.

Based on archives sources the article presents his life in the Galați, Sighet, and Râmnicu Sărat’s penitentiary and in work colony from Culmea and Periprava until his release (May 9th, 1964).

 

 

Ottmar Trașcă, Aspects during the First Years of the Collectivization of Agriculture in Romania, 1949–1952. Study of Case: the Region Cluj, p.385–407.

 

Agriculture collectivization was a profound and ample action extended over a long period of time which had negative economical and social consequences on the Romanian villages.

The agriculture collectivization began after plenary session C.C. of Romanian Worker’s Party on 3rd -5th March 1949 and unfolded in many stages, coming to end in 1962.

The Communist Party organizations, Police, State Security Department, and Villages Councils have managed this process in Cluj County, also.

Other subjects touched upon by the author in this article, are the growth of Community Agricultural Farms and the rough actions against the wealthier peasants.

 

 

László Márton, Bauernhandlungen gegen die Gründung und das Wirken der Kollektiven Landwirtschaftsvereine in der Gegend Mureș (September 1950 – Dezember 1951), p.407-438.

 

Der Verfasser beschreibt die bei der Organisierung der Kollektiven Landwirtschaftsvereine angewandten üblichen Verfahren, sowie die Strategien der Kollektivisierung. Wenn sich die Bauern verweigerten in die Kollektivvereine einzutreten, wurden entweder Zwangsmaßnahmen getroffen, die von den physischen Gewalttaten bis zur Hinrichtung reichten, oder die Miliz Organe übten ihre Macht aus, vermittels der Verhaftungen,  der Gefangennahme mancher Familienmitglieder und der Zwangsevakuierung. Folgende Etappen der Kollektivisierung in der Marosch Gegend werden in diesem Aufsatz vorgeführt: die allgemeine Kollektivisierung (März 1949 – Juni 1950), die Zwangskollektivisierung (Juli-August 1950). Trotz der erhofften positiven Ergebnisse bei Anwendung der Kollektivisierungsmaßnahmen, entstanden in der Marosch Gegend aufrührerische kollektivisierungsfeindliche Bewegungen, wie jene aus Iernut, welche sich in den Ortschaften Șeulia de Mureș, Cucerdea, Chinciuș ausbreitete.

 

 

Gabriel Catalan, Anstalten, Verfahren und Persönlichkeiten zu Beginn der Sowjetisierung der rumänischen Kultur und Geschichtsschreibung, p. 430 – 462.

 

Der Aufsatz stellt die Einsetzung der Sowjetkontrolle im rumänischen Kulturleben, gleichzeitig mit der Gründung des Rumänischen Vereines für engere Beziehungen mit der Sowjetunion (Asociația Română pentru strângerea Legăturilor cu Uniunea Sovietică, ARLUS) dar. ARLUS wurde 1944 von einer Gruppe von kommunistischen und links orientierten Intellektuellen gegründet. Der Verfasser beschreibt den organisatorischen Werdegang des Vereines, sowie dessen  Presseorgane und wissenschaftlichen Blätter: „Veac Nou“, „Caietele ARLUS“, „Analele Româno-Sovietice”. 1945 entstanden der Verlag „Cartea Rusă” (Das russische Buch) und die gleichnamige Buchhandlung, welche nachträglich das Rumänisch-Russische Museum und das Institut für Rumänisch-Sowjetische Studien wurden. Binnen kurzer Zeit zählte ARLUS 500.000 Mitglieder und wurde dadurch zum Hauptförderer des Sowjetmusters in der Kultur. Zweck seiner Tätigkeit war kein anderer, als die nach Willkür der Anführer der Sowjetunion betriebene Mystifizierung der rumänischen Kultur und Nationalgeschichte.

 

 

Petre Opriș, The Romanian Defence Industry before the Foundation of the Organization of the Warshaw Treaty, p. 463–483.

 

  The article makes comments about the steps of officials to produce arms and munitions over the period of 1949–1954.

Stalin’s decision – taken at the beginning of 1951 – to arm Communist European States produced an increased in the Romanian military expenses.

 

 

 Ela Cosma, Ein Entwurf die Herstellung der Landesstraßen und zur Organisierung der ersten öffentlichen Loterie in Siebenbürgen, 1773, S. 503-522.

Der Aufsatz bespricht ein in Überschreibung und Übersetzung wiedergegebenes  Dokument aus dem Jahr 1773. Es handelt sich um den dem Militäroberkommando zu Hermannstadt eingereichten Vorschlag des Hauptmanns Gerard vom Nugent Infanterie Regiment aus Bistritz, hinsichtlich der Herstellung von Straßen im Fürstentum Siebenbürgen. Der Verfaßer des Entwurfes macht eine ausführliche Darstellung der Möglichkeiten zur Aufstellung einer Baukassa, also eines Fonds zur Herstellung und nachmaligen Unterhaltung der Brücken und Straßen in Siebenbürgen. Er identifiziert die nötigen Geldquellen und plant die Einteilung und Organisierung der konkreten Arbeit am Straßen- und Brückenbau ein. Die Einführung einer Steuer, die auf die verschiedenen Klassen der Einwohner des Fürstentums repartiert werden solle, wird vorgeschlagen, indem die Magnaten, Geistlichen, Magistratspersonen und Kaufleute mit Geld, das Militär und die Bauern aber mit Arbeit beitragen sollen. Gerard stellt weiter den Antrag, als zusätzliche Gewinnquelle, der projektierten Baukassa eine öffentliche Lotterie auch in Siebenbürgen, nach dem schon in anderen Teilen der Monarchie bestehenden Vorbild, zuzugeben. Es geht um den Antrag zur Aufstellung der ersten öffentlichen Lotterie dazulande, deren Funktionierungsvorsätze scheinbar bis heutzutage in Wikung geblieben sind.

 

 

Ioan Bolovan, Die Siebenbürger Juden 1870-1930. Demographische Beiträge, S. 539-550.

 

Auf Grund der amtlichen statistischen Angaben bemerkt der Verfasser, daß in der Zeitspanne von 1870 bis 1930 die jüdische Bevölkerung Siebenbürgens einen höheren Zuwachsrytmus als jener der Gesamtbevölkerung hatte. Wenn die Landesbevölkerung insgesamt mit 31,3% zunahm, so registrierten die Juden einen Zuwachs von 83,6%, d.h. daß die jüdische Bevölkerung einen fast 2,7 mal größeren Zuwachs als die übrigen Völkerschaften Siebenbürgens kannte. Der in der chronologischen Zeitspanne von 1870 – 1970 festgestellte bemerkenswerte Zuwachs beruhte sich nicht ausschließlich auf den höheren natürlichen Zuwachs der Juden. Diese spektakuläre Zunahme ist in großem Maße auch auf die Einwanderung zahlreicher Juden nach Siebenbürgen zurückzuführen, welche, wenigstens bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg, aus Galizien, der Bukowina und aus dem russischen Reich ihre Zuflucht nahmen, wo die Pogrome und antijüdischen Verfolgungen eine fast ununterbrochene Auswanderungswelle bestimmten.